References

References

Scientific literature detailing glass sponge science and research

The Discovery 

  1. Conway, K.W., Krautter, M., Barrie, J.V., and Neuweiler, M. 2001. Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Canadian continental shelf: a unique “living fossil”. Geoscience Canada. 28(2):71-78.
  2. Krautter, M, Conway, K.W., and Barrie, V.J. 2006. Recent Hexactinosidan sponge reefs (silicate mounds) off British Columbia, Canada: frame-building processes. J. Paleont. 80(1):38-48. 
  3. Hogg, M.M., Tendal, O.S., Conway, K.W., Pomponi, S.A., Van Soest, R.W.M., Gutt, J., Krautter, M., and Robers, J.M. 2010. Deep-sea sponge grounds: reservoirs of biodiversity. UNEP-WCMC Biodiversity Series No. 32.
  4. Conway, K.W., Barrie, J.V., and Krautter, M. 2004.Modern siliceous sponge reefs in a turbid, siliciclastic setting: Fraser River delta, British Columbia, Canada. Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaontologie Monatshefte 6(6):335-350.
  5. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2012. Hecate Strait / Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs Area Of Interest (AOI) Consultations.

The Biology

  1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2012. Hecate Strait / Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs Area Of Interest (AOI) Consultations.
  2.  Leys, S.P. 2015. Elements of a ‘nervous system’ in sponges. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 218(4):581-591.
  3.  Krautter, M., Conway, K.W., Barrie, J.V., and Neuweiler, M. 2001. Discovery of a “Living Dinosaur”: Globally unique modern hexactinellid sponge reefs off British Columbia, Canada. Facies. 44(1):265-282.
  4. Tompkins-MacDonald, G.J. and Leys, S.P. 2008. Glass sponges arrest pumping in response to sediment: implications for the physiology of the hexactinellid conduction system.
  5. Krautter, M. 2006. Proceedings of the Standing Senate Committee on Fisheries and Oceans. Issue 4.
  6. Chu, J.W.F., Maldonado, M., Yahel, G., and Leys, S.P. 2011. Glass sponge reefs as a silicon sink. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 441:1-14.
  7. Cook, S.E., Conway, K.W., Burd, B. 2008. Status of the glass sponge reefs in the Georgia Basin. Marine Environment Research. 66: S80–S86.
  8. Marliave, J.B., Conway, K.W., Gibbs, D.M., Lamb, A., and Gibbs, C. 2009. Biodiversity and rockfish recruitment in sponge gardens and bioherms of southern British Columbia, Canada. Mar. Biol. 156:2247-2254.
  9. Cook, S.E. 2005. Ecology of the Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Western Canadian continental shelf. Masters thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
  10. Chu, J. W. F. and Leys, S. P. 2010. High resolution mapping of community structure in three glass sponge reefs (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 417: 97-113.
  11. Yahel, G., Whitney, F., Reiswig, H.M., Eerkes-Medrano, D.I., and Leys, S.P. 2007. In situ feeding and metabolism of glass sponges (Hexactinellida, Porifera) studied in a deep temperate fjord with a remotely operated submersible. Am. Soc. of Limnology and Oceanography. 52(1):428-440.
  12. Kahn, A.S, Yahel, G., Chu, J.W.F., Tunnicliffe, V. and Leys, S.P. 2015. Benthic grazing and carbon sequestration by deep-water glass sponge reefs. Limnology and Oceanography. 60(1):78:88.
  13. Leys, S.P. 2013. Effects of Sediment on Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) and projected effects on Glass Sponge Reefs. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/074. vi + 23 p.
  14. Leys, S.P., Mackie, G.O., and Meech, RW. 1999. Impulse conduction in a sponge. J. Exp. Biol. 202(9):1139-50.

Conservation

  1. Conway, K.W., Krautter, M., Barrie, J.V., and Neuweiler, M. 2001. Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Canadian continental shelf: a unique “living fossil”. Geoscience Canada. 28(2):71-78.
  2. Leys, S.P. and Lauzon, N.R.J. 1998. Hexactinellid sponge ecology: growth rates and seasonality in deep water sponges. Ecology. 230(1): 111-129.
  3. Krautter, M., Conway, K.W., Barrie, J.V., and Neuweiler, M. 2001. Discovery of a “Living Dinosaur”: Globally unique modern hexactinellid sponge reefs off British Columbia, Canada. Facies. 44(1):265-282.
  4. Leys, S.P. 2011. Effects of Sediment on Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) and projected effects on Glass Sponge Reefs. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/074. vi + 23 p.
  5. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2010. Hecate Strait / Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reef Area of Interest: Overview and Context.
  6. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2012. Hecate Strait / Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs Area Of Interest (AOI) Consultations.
  7. Government of Canada. 2015. Hecate Strait and Queen Charlotte Sound Glass Sponge Reefs Marine Protected Areas Regulations. Canada Gazette. 149(26).

Exploration and Research

  1. Conway, K.W., Krautter, M., Barrie, J.V., and Neuweiler, M. 2001. Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Canadian continental shelf: a unique “living fossil”. Geoscience Canada. 28(2):71-78.
  2. Conway, K.W., Barrie, J.V., and Krautter, M. 2005. Geomorphology of unique reefs on the western Canadian shelf: sponge reefs mapped by multibeam bathymetry. Geo-Mar Lett. 25:205-213.
  3. Chu, J.W.F. and Leys, S.P. 2010. High resolution mapping of community structure in three glass sponge reefs (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 417:97-113.
  4. Cook, S.E. 2005. Ecology of the Hexactinellid sponge reefs on the Western Canadian continental shelf. Masters thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada.
  5. Yahel, G., Whitney, F., Reiswig, H.M., Eerkes-Medrano, D.I., and Leys, S.P. 2007. In situ feeding and metabolism of glass sponges (Hexactinellida, Porifera) studied in a deep temperate fjord with a remotely operated submersible. Am. Soc. of Limnology and Oceanography. 52(1):428-440.
  6. Austin, W.C., Conway, K.W., Barrie, V.J., and Krautter, M. 2007. Growth and morphology of a reef-forming glass sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus (Hexactinellida), and implications for recovery from widespread trawl damage. Porifera research: biodiversity, innovation and sustainability. 28:139-145.
  7. Brown, R.R. 2015. Reproduction and Genetic Structure in a Reef-Forming Glass Sponge, Aphrocallistes vastus. Masters thesis. University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.
  8. Chu, J.W.F., Maldonado, M., Yahel, G., and Leys, S.P. 2011. Glass sponge reefs as a silicon sink. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 441:1-14.
  9. Kahn, A.S., Vehring, L.J., Brown, R.R., and Leys, S.P. 2016. Dynamic change, recruitment and resilience in reef-forming glass sponges. JMBA. 96(2):429-436.
  10. Leys, S.P., Yahel, G., Reidenbach, M.A., Tunnicliffe, V., Shavit, U., and Resiwig, H.M. 2011. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan. PLoS ONE 6(12): e27787.
  11. Leys, S.P. 2013. Effects of Sediment on Glass Sponges (Porifera, Hexactinellida) and projected effects on Glass Sponge Reefs. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/074. vi + 23 p.
  12. Yahel, G., Eerkes-Medrano, D.I., and Leys, S.P. 2006. Size independent selective filtration of ultraplankton by hexactinellid glass sponges. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 45:181-194.
  13. Leys, S.P. 2015. Hecate Strait Blog – Chief Scientists Log.